Integrating Accessibility Into The Business Process
Introduction To Inclusive Governance
The World Wide Web Foundation empowers people to bring about positive change. In 1989, Sir Tim Berners-Lee invented the World Wide Web. Then, he gave it to the world for free. Now, it is up to all of us to protect and enhance it.
A challenge for all users is finding the information they want on web pages that contain lot of information that they don't want. In general, the Web tends to present information in a way that overwhelms most users. Cognitive considerations for visualization, text simplification, and the interface design, are important for making Web content more approachable, readable, and digestible. A business best practice strategy built upon an inclusive model will have a competitive edge in the expanding global digital economy. Web Accessibility is the deficit gap between the Disability of the user and the System capabilities. The goal is to bridge the Accessibility Gap, through Universal Design, that will create the best possible interoperability of System components to achieve the desired User experience. Read the WebAIM article: Introduction to Web Accessibility.
Web site accessibility is an ongoing effort that must be integrated into the product life cycle stream. Innovation and Collaboration is the intersection of progress driven by Creativity and Engagement. A product life cycle Inclusive Governance Model will improve employee productivity and expand market growth. The effectiveness of this governance model depends upon several components of web development and interaction processes. There is an implied essential partnership between the system components (operating platform, applications, assistive technology, and user knowledge), and project responsibility roles (Project management, Development, Architecture, Design, Content management, and testing), That must interact effectively for a good User experience.
Success means different things to different people and different organizations, but We all have something to add, to help improve accessibility. The key is to identify a common principle of accessibility within your organization, and then allow Advocates to promote functional accessibility, developers to question implementation techniques, project managers to allocate resources and skill development, lawyers to assess liability and risks, and the executives to challenge the business case. While the Web Accessibility Content Guidelines (WCAG) standards have been widely accepted, and adopted by many organizations, it is necessary to document your own interpretations of WCAG to improve consistency between developers and testers. Organizations that leverage accessibility guidelines as a driver of innovation, minimize risk and are more competitive in the global market. Check out The W3C Web Accessibility Laws & Policies Guide.
Project Design Phase
Good design is a cyclic process: Requirement Analysis, Design, Implementation, Testing, Evolution, Repeat. Accessibility assessment begins at the design level of a product life cycle. The page landscape must be perceivable, the content understandable, the objects operable, and the overall usability must be robust.
Engaging People in the Design Process is the Key to Successful Inclusion.
Who Is Involved In The Design Phase
In this phase, construct a standards-compliant website using materials from the Analysis and Design phases. The first task is to assign a team member the role of Accessibility Liaison. This person will be responsible for coordinating accessibility status meetings throughout the development process, define accessibility techniques and remediation plans, prepare accessibility testing scenarios, and monitor accessibility remediation efforts. This will require an understanding of the WCAG standards criteria, available automated testing tools, and usability testing requirements. Integrate your accessibility testing tools with development and standard testing tools and processes. Develop With Inclusion In Mind.
Who Is Involved In The Development Phase
Functional Testing Phase
Dynamic page rendering and operable functionality must be thoroughly tested before usability testing begins. Where native HTML5 cannot meet accessibility requirements, then ARIA coding can be implemented. Java scripts and widgets (JQuery, Dojo) must be robust. This is also refered to as User Acceptance testing, or Beta Testing, to ensure the code is behaving as expected and the website design is defect free.
Who Is Involved In The Functional Testing Phase
Usability Testing Phase
Coordinate groups of test participants who have different needs, skills sets, browser configuration options, and assistive technologies. The outcome of this phase is a remediation report describing problems revealed in testing, and their solutions. The Usability Testing deals with user behaviour, and determines if an application is or will be easy to use for the end user. The accessibility testing team will perform final Accessibility Verification Testing (AVT) to ensure that those who are blind or have low vision, those who are deaf or hard of hearing, those who have cognitive disabilities, or those who have motor disabilities, can successfully access your web application. The manual test must be done with keyboard only, screen readers, and any other user agents. Usability Is Achieved Through Diversity Of End-User Testing.
Who Is Involved In The Usability Testing Phase
Product Documentation and Training Phase
Who Is Involved In The Documentation Phase
Evaluation Review Phase
The evaluation review should be based on the project scope framework and the accepted conformance standard guidance. The initial review should focus on the general user experience. Users with disabilities and older users can be included in a wide range of evaluation activities (informal user interviews to formal test procedures). While access to people with disabilities is the primary focus of accessibility, it also benefits people without disabilities. Integrating Accessibility Testing into the Quality Assurance Process
Who Is Involved In The Evaluation Phase
Deployment And Support Phase
Support costs can be significant, there may be customer satisfaction or legal risks associated with inappropriate application support. Under the Accessibility for Ontarians with Disabilities Act (AODA), there are obligations and penalties for customer support. User Profiles - Understanding Disabilities and Impairments: UK Government Digital Service, October 2017